The Book of the Dead

One of the best copies of the book of the dead was written in 1240 BC. This book is filled with pictures of Ani and his wife. The book shows them traveling through the land of the dead. It also shows them going to the halls of Ma’ati and beyond.

The book goes through spells used to be able to survive the afterlife.  The spells are to get him past the tests and judgment of the underworld. In the halls of Ma’ati, Ani’s heart is proven to be the weight of a feather.  Ani spoke the truth and escaped the jaws of Ammut.

The Gods welcome Ani, and Horus showed him to Osiris. If Ani recites the spells right he can pass through the doors and be in the domain of Osiris.  There is 20 pylons and at each one Ani has to recite a spell to continue on to Osiris.

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Horus is the son of Osiris and Isis. He is most commonly seen as a falcon-headed man. He is also shown as a lion with a head of a falcon, or a sphinx.  It is almost impossible to recognize Horus’s true form because of all of the other forms he was described as.  Horus is a general term for a great number of falcons.

In all of his forms he is regarded as the prince of the gods. Tribes that invaded and then settled into Egypt brought the worship of Horus. He was their god of war. Horus was the protector and guide of the future pharaohs. The most popular story of Horus is the one where he avenges his father’s death and kills his uncle.

Horus is the God of the noontime sun. He is represented as a lion with the head of a hawk. He constantly fights with his uncle Set. He also fights with an army of darkness. He fights with that army so that the sun rises every morning.

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The Ram in Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was famous for their animal worship of bulls, cows, cats, dogs, geese, crocodiles, and even scarab beetles. The bull was one of a few animals worshipped specifically in their animal form.  One of the best-known animals and most important to the gods was the Ram, also worshipped in its animal form. The Ram was a temple animal and only one beast was chosen to be a temple animal. The Ram was chosen as a temple animal even though sheep were considered not to be clean or pure by the ancient Egyptians.

In history, rams have been important in mythology and religion.  They were often the objects of sacrifice.  A story in the Old Testament talks about Abraham’s son, Isaac, being saved from sacrifice.  An angel stopped the sacrifice of Isaac and the ram was sacrificed instead. The Ram was also respected by ancient Egyptians for its fertility and warlike attributes.

The very earliest gods who were represented with ram features were based on the Egyptian god Ovis. The most resent excavations have found rams as gods in temples. There was twelve granite and three limestone ram sarcophagi’s found in the temple also. Around the 12th dynasty of Egypt’s middle kingdom a second species of ram appeared, it was the curved horn ram.

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The Legend of Osiris

The legend of Osiris is one of the most ancient myths in Egypt. The myth instates that Osiris is in the position of god of the dead and the lord of the underworld. Witch gives his son Horus the right to kingship. The story also tells the powers and duties of the other major gods. This story is not a complete version, it is many different versions of the story put together.

In this version the story begins with Osiris as the first pharaoh and Isis as the first queen of Egypt. Even though it was a time of piece called the golden age, Osiris had many troubles with his brother set.  Set devised a plan to kill his brother Osiris and take all of his powers and control Egypt. Set built a box that would chain anyone who entered it. He waited for his brother to get drunk and the challenged him to a game.

The game was to see who was stronger and break out of the box faster. Osiris said that he would go first because he was very competitive.  When Osiris got in the box Set quickly poured molten lead in to the box. Osiris tried to escape but the lead dried to quickly. After it hardened Set threw the bow in to the Nile. Isis went looking for Osiris and found him in a tree. Horus Osiris’s son was sent to an island, and when he was grown we went and fought set and defeated him but did not kill him because he would be just as bad as his uncle. A few years later they fought again and Horus killed his uncle.

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